Global Spotlight Report #67: Can Countries’ Farmers Cope with Climate Change?


In Post 67 we asked our Climate Scorecard Country Managers to describe the relationship of their country’s farmers to climate change. Part of each report focuses on the impact of climate change on the ability of country farmers to produce food and earn a living; the other half focuses on the ability of country farmers to adapt to climate change conditions and grow food more abundantly and sustainably.

Each reports also contains descriptions of country farmers in each country, the size of their farm, what they produce each year, and the kinds of planting, growing, and harvesting techniques being used to maintain or increase yields. Reports also contain suggestions for technical support that might enable country farmers to adapt their farming practices to the dynamics of climate change.

Each country is given a Climate Scorecard A, B, C, or D rating for their ability to adapt farming practices to climate change.


  • A: Excellent Progress
  • B: Moderate Progress
  • C: Standing Still
  • D: Falling Behind 

The table below provides a short summary of each Country Report and the rating given to it followed by a summary of all country Ratings. Complete Country reports follow.

Ratings Summary:

  • A: South Africa
  • B: Brazil, Canada, China, European Union, France, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States
  • C:Australia, Japan, Saudi Arabia
  • D: n/a

Table: Country Farming Efforts to Cope with Climate Change

Country Rating and Impact
  • C: Farmers need more technical and financial support to address the needs of climate change
  • B: Farmers using carbon sequestration to address climate change
  • B: Farmers have formed a Coalition to address climate change
  • B: Farmers are making moderate progress in addressing climate change
European Union
  • B: Farmers need more monetary support and greater collaboration with policy makers
  • B: Farmers ask for more government support
  • B: Climate Change Affects on Production Varies by Region
  • B: Climate Change Effects on Production Varies by Region
  • C: A Dwindling Farm Labor Force Needs Government Support
  • B: Mexican Farmers Need Technical and Financial Support
  • B: Nigerian Farmers Display Resilience and Flexibility in the Face of Climate Change
Saudi Arabia
  • C: Saudi Arabia’s Large-Scale Production of Dates is Being Threatened by Climate Change
South Africa
  • A: South Africa is Being Successful in Having Its Farmers Adapt to Climate Change
  • B: 97% of Turkey’s Farmers Report Diminished Harvests and Yields Due to Climate Change
United Kingdom
  • B: UK Agriculture Needs a Radical Transformation
United States
  • B: US Farmers Need Technical, Policy, and Financial Support

Country Reports

Australian Farmers Need More Technical and Financial Support to Address the Negative Impacts of Climate Change

Rating: C Australian farmers have coped with challenging conditions and weather extremes for many years. However, their ability to continue is being tested by the rapid changes brought about by climate change. These changes are experienced differently across the country, mirroring the great diversity of farming practices used in the vast continent. While the 87,800…

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Brazil’s Approach that Emphasizes Carbon Sequestration

B Rating The agricultural sector’s vulnerability to climate change requires effective and urgent adaptation strategies that could increase the resilience of agricultural production systems. The sixth report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) entitled Climate Change 2021: The Basis of Physical Science, published in August last year, confirmed the unequivocal and irreversible trends…

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Climate Solutions, a coalition of over 20,000 farmers, is helping Canadian farmers adapt to climate change

Rating B In Canada, growing farm foods is highly determined by weather and climate, as climate change has meant increased temperatures and the likelihood of extreme events such as wildfires, flooding, hail storms, and tornadoes. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada report with earlier snow melts and shifting precipitation patterns; drought is becoming more common in the…

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China’s farmers are making moderate progress in adopting farming methods to climate change

Rating B (Moderate Progress)China’s agricultural landscape is as diverse as one can imagine: Lush mango plantations and pineapple fields stretch across Hainan Island. Shimmering rice terraces dominate the landscapes of Guangxi and Yunnan in the South, fields of wheat those in Sichuan – China’s “breadbasket” in the Southwest – and Henan in the center. Water-filled…

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EU Must Provide Greater Monetary Support to Farmers and Increase Collaboration Between Farmers and Policymakers

Rating B (Moderate Progress)Droughts and excessive heat caused by climate change make it increasingly difficult for farmers to produce adequate food. Climate change has led to less fruitful harvests and higher production costs, which has impacted both the quantity and quality of food produced in the EU.According to Copa-Cogeca, an EU farmer’s union that acts…

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France’s Government Needs to do More to Help Farmers Adapt to Climate Change

Rating B The typical French farmer varies in terms of farm size and the products they produce yearly. France has a diverse agricultural landscape, ranging from small family-owned farms to large-scale operations. Farm sizes in France can range from a few hectares to several hundred hectares, depending on the region and type of farming; however,…

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Climate change effects on farm production in India vary by region

Rating: B India is the 7th largest nation by area, with more than 1.4 billion people.  Agriculture, with its allied sectors, is the largest source of livelihood, with 70% of its rural households still depending primarily on agriculture, while 82% of farmers are small and marginal. In addition, the population of Indian farmers is spread…

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The Understanding and Response to Climate Change by Farmers in Indonesia Varies Depending on Their Location

Rating B (Moderate progress to sustainability) Indonesia has approximately 38.8 million farmers dispersed among 75,436 villages, 7,232 sub-districts, and 514 regencies/cities. Rice is the primary crop cultivated by Indonesian farmers. Other crops cultivated by farmers are palm oil, natural rubber, cocoa, coffee, tea, cassava, rice, and tropical spices. The average size of the farm is…

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A Dwindling Farm Labor Force in Japan Needs Increased Government Support

Rating C“We’re going home.” said the couple, already over 75 years old, after seeing the typhoon’s forecasted path and wind direction map on a TV news program. They said they needed to return to their rice fields and farm immediately to adjust the water and deal with the strong winds. This was only 15 minutes…

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Farmers in Mexico are trying to adapt to climate change but need excellent technical and financial support

Rating B In Mexico, the agricultural sector is a vital component of the economy, with millions of farmers depending on their crops for sustenance and income. However, the looming threat of climate change poses a considerable challenge to these farmers’ ability to produce food and maintain their livelihoods. This Post explores the relationship between Mexico’s…

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Nigerian farmers have displayed commendable resilience and flexibility due to ever-shifting climate dynamics

Rating BIn Nigeria, the average farm size for subsistence farmers varies between 1 to 3 hectares, with a noticeable distinction between the Northern and Southern regions. The North boasts larger farm sizes than the South, a trend that shapes the agricultural dynamics within the nation. The diversity in farm sizes often reflects the region’s climate,…

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Saudi Arabia requires a multi-pronged technical support effort to maintain its large-scale production of dates

Rating C   Saudi Arabia is extremely vulnerable to the effects of climate change due to its harsh desert climate and low levels of arable land that constitute only 5% of its total area and scarce water resources. Nevertheless, Saudi Arabia is considered one of the top three date-producing countries in the world, with 1,065,032…

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South Africa is being successful in having its farmers adopt Climate Smart Agriculture

Rating A   About 2% of the Growth Domestic Product (GDP) in South Africa comes from agriculture. Although agriculture contributes a small percentage to the GDP, it is an essential economic growth engine.  Climate change adversely affects agriculture due to the lack of water and increased heat stress on plants and animals. Farmers are experiencing…

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Spanish Farmers’ Climate Adaptation Efforts are Harder in Times of Political Instability

Rating BAlthough Climate Change is an escalating global challenge, it’s especially relevant for Spain, as it is one of the EU countries expected to be affected the most by the climate crisis, impacting various sectors, including agriculture.The size of a Spanish farmer’s farm can vary widely. Some farmers operate small family-owned plots, while others might…

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97% of Turkish Farmers Reported Diminishing Harvests and Yields Due to Climate Change-Related Impacts

Rating: B  Turkey’s agricultural economy is among the top ten in the world, with half of the country consisting of agricultural land and nearly a quarter of the population employed in agriculture. Turkey is a major producer of wheat, sugar beets, milk, poultry, cotton, tomatoes, and other fruits and vegetables and is the top producer…

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UK agriculture needs a more radical transformation in the face of climate change

Rating B The UK has a temperate maritime climate. In general, this means that we have mild summers and cool, rather than cold winters, for our latitude. Climate change is expected to give us warmer and wetter winters and hotter and drier summers. There could be a greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather, such…

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Practices exist to help US farmers cope with climate change but require technical, policy and capacity-building support

Rating BThe impact of climate change on the economy varies from sector to sector. Still, as a critical user of land, water, and other natural resources, the agricultural sector is significantly vulnerable.  Climate change in the United States has caused reduced crop growth and extended growing seasons that are detrimental to the ability of farmers…

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