China Country Reports

China’s Advances in Renewable Energy Resources

Walking Shanghai’s streets nowadays is a quieter experience than four years ago. Cars and buses glide silently as the electrification of China’s transport system progresses. Electrification and the accompanying transition towards a more diversified energy mix – despite continued headlines decrying increased coal capacities – hold the potential to initiate a structural decline in emissions…

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China: Model Community Climate Mitigation Programs

Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA)   The Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area – short TEDA – is a 440,000 m2 area between Tianjin City and the adjacent coast, housing some 600,000 inhabitants, comprising 10,000 industrial companies, more than 1,000 manufacturing companies, hospitals, high schools, etc. It was established in 1984 as one of China’s earliest national-level…

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China: COP 28 Recommendations for Strengthening Country Climate Ambition

To: Minister Huang Runqiu, Ministry of Environment and Ecology No.12, East Chang’an Avenue, Dongcheng District, 100006 Beijing P.R. China advice@mee.gov.cn  Honorable Minister Huang   We are Climate Scorecard, a non-profit organization that monitors leading greenhouse gas-emitting countries’ climate policies and programs. Based on a review of China’s policies, we believe that China has, over the past…

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China’s farmers are making moderate progress in adopting farming methods to climate change

Rating B (Moderate Progress)China’s agricultural landscape is as diverse as one can imagine: Lush mango plantations and pineapple fields stretch across Hainan Island. Shimmering rice terraces dominate the landscapes of Guangxi and Yunnan in the South, fields of wheat those in Sichuan – China’s “breadbasket” in the Southwest – and Henan in the center. Water-filled…

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China’s Water Issues Focus on Building Resilience Against Flooding and Droughts

Rating: BPast discussions on the water in China have centred mainly on the use of water for hydroelectricity generation and the construction of megadams, e.g., the Three Gorges Dam, as well as the remediation of drinking water pollution due to leachate from agricultural activity and wastewater contamination from industrial production. Over the past five years,…

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China’s Emissions at a Standstill During 1st Half of 2023, but Promising New Policies Have Been Introduced

China Progress Report: Midway 2023 Rating: CChina’s decarbonization efforts stagnate as the country must balance between economic recovery, energy security, and meeting the 30/60 carbon targets.Greenhouse Gas or CO2 emissions-related data for the first half of 2023 appears unavailable via official sources such as the National Bureau of Statistics. The NBS usually publishes aggregated information,…

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NGO ClientEarth Supports Improved Climate Jurisprudence Work of China’s Supreme People’s Court

China’s legal institutions have increasingly had to deal with cases related to environmental issues over the past decade. In 2020 alone, Chinese prosecutors had to handle some 80,000 environmental public interest cases. Early environmental law first governed air and water pollution, industrial discharge, or agricultural soil contamination. Issues related to climate change have started to…

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China may be able to come close to a 50% 2030 reduction goal if the implementation of policy groundwork is intensified

The latest installment of the IPCC’s Assessment Report AR6 stipulates that countries will have to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 50% over 1990 temperatures by 2030. Will China, the world’s largest greenhouse gas emitter, achieve this goal?While there is no crystal ball to fully predict the future of China’s emissions, the latest IPCC report has…

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With 2.2 trillion  USD in 2020 – China leads global fossil fuel subsidies but has embarked on a path to reduction

According to an IMF working paper on fossil fuel subsidies, East Asia and the Pacific region account for 48% of global energy subsidies. By country, China has been the biggest subsidizer in absolute terms, contributing 2.2 trillion  USD in subsidies in 2020, or nearly 15% of GDP and approx. 1,600  USD per capita. However, different…

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Agriculture Practices of Indigenous People in China Have Been Greatly Affected by Climate Change

The People’s Republic of China does not recognize the term “indigenous people” for its 55 ethnic minorities (incl. groups in Taiwan), even though in 1990 the country declared itself a supporter of indigenous rights elsewhere. Instead, China calls its various ethnic groups “ethnic minorities” (少数民族). The difference in terminology can be explained in historic terms….

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Decreasing Importance of the Agricultural Sector in China’s Development is Reflected in Decreasing CO2 and NOX Emissions from Agriculture

For millennia, China has been a rural, agriculture-based country. While 56.1% or 5.29 mio km2 (2020) of China’s landmass is still considered agricultural land, the importance of agriculture for the country’s development has been steadily decreasing over the past decades. There are currently about 3.9 mio km2 of pasture and between 1.3. – 1.6 mio…

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China’s Power Grid Systems

The State Grid Corporation and the China Southern Power Grid Corporation   China today operates on two wide area synchronous grids: the State Grid in the North and China Southern Power Grid in the South. The grids are operated by two respectively named grid operating companies. China’s electric power industry started at the end of…

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China’s Changing Mix of Electricity-Generating Sources Drives a Steady Decrease in Carbon Intensity

Electrification of China’s transport system, industry, heating, and other sectors is the backbone of the country’s drive to decarbonize its development. Therefore, it is important to take a look at the development of the sources of electricity: thermal combustion for power and the simultaneous growth of output and use of renewable energy sources like wind…

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China’s New Energy Vehicle Strategy Supported by the World’s Largest Vehicle Charging Station Network

China has been the world’s largest and most important car market now for a number of years, with an estimated 302 million passenger cars on the road. More cars are produced and sold in China than in the USA or in the EU despite some decline in sales in more recent years. The China Association…

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Climate Change Effects in China Exceed the Global Average, Leading to an Annual Average of US $40 Billion in Overall Economic Loss and Damages

China, like many countries, has been feeling the effects of climate change over the past decades in the form of an increase in extreme weather events. Some estimates say that floods, droughts, and storms are incurring direct economic losses of 25 to 37.5 billion USD per year. Other reports place that number at 1% of…

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China to Step Up Climate Efforts with Monitoring Pilots and Enhanced Policy

In past articles, we discussed the importance of data monitoring, availability, and quality in order to track emissions developments resulting from policies and required measures introduced by governments.China has been notoriously lagging in data availability, quality, and reporting. Data must be collected, for example, from companies included in the various Emissions Trading Systems across the…

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China: Climate Progress Indicators

Significant improvement in air quality index (AQI) in eight Chinese cities from March to June 2022; slight decrease in coal output from April 2021 to April 2022; a drop of 14.5 in wind energy output while a 25% growth rate in solar PV between April 2021 and April 2022.Aggregated actual emission data from China is…

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China’s Youth Think China Should Do More to Support Shortcomings in Climate Research on Carbon Reducing Technology

Environmental protection has been on the minds of young Chinese for decades. When I introduced my company’s environmental youth education program in China in 2003, university students from bachelor freshmen to master’s students were active in all types of on-campus programs, “Green Clubs” and other activities to disseminate knowledge and create awareness for waste water…

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Natural Gas Use Contributed to Cleaner Air and Lower Emissions in China but is Slated to Take Second Seat to Renewables in Future Plans

China’s National Bureau of Statistics publishes an official Balance Sheet for natural gas both in English and Chinese. It illustrates that gas consumption has more than tripled over the past 10 years from 89.5 billion m3 to nearly 306 billion m3 in 2019. This reflects China’s strategy of the decade to introduce more natural gas…

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The Effect of the Russian Invasion of Ukraine on China’s Climate Policy and Practices

The relationship between China and Russia has been under scrutiny by many since Russia marched its army into Ukraine some weeks ago. China appears to be standing with Russia against much criticism from many in the global community. Russia speaks of reinforced friendship and strong relationships between the two countries. At first glance, this may…

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China: Climate Progress Report

Indicator: Energy Output of Coal (monthly, quarterly, and annually) Renewable Energy Output (monthly, quarterly, and annually) Air and Water Quality Data (Daily) Gross Ecological Product (measurement still in process) Energy security while transitioning to low-carbon energy provision continues to be the number one priority of the Chinese government. The most recently released “Opinions on Improving…

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Climate Justice in China

HIGHLIGHTS Climate change hits urban and rural areas equally “Climate poverty” affects at-risk agricultural communities and communities dependent on the ecological health of their water bodies Groups of affected people are highly diverse and can be found in all parts of China Minority ethnic groups, such as Tibetan and Uighurs, also have access to the…

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China: The 2021 Climate Year in Review

HIGHLIGHTS Adoption of 14th Five Year Plan, a Development Model Promoting Advanced Clean Technologies, that Pollute Less and Save Energy Roll Out of Emissions Trading Program Extreme Weather Patterns in China’s Hinterland Trigger Greater Emphasis on Developing Climate Adaptation and Resilience Programs Commitment to End All Financing of Coal-Based Power Plants Outside of China China Submits Revised…

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FILE - In this Nov. 28, 2019 file photo, smoke and steam rise from a coal processing plant in Hejin in central China's Shanxi Province. Chinese President Xi Jinping says his country will aim to stop pumping additional carbon dioxide, the main global warming gas, into the atmosphere by 2060. Xi's announcement during a speech Tuesday, Sept. 22, 2020, to the U.N. General Assembly is a significant step for the world's biggest emitter of greenhouse gases and was immediately cheered by climate campaigners. (AP Photo/Sam McNeil, File)

Climate Mitigation Strategic Priorities for China

Priorities Nationwide programs to identify the impact of closing polluting industries such as coal mines, coal-fired power plants etc. on the livelihood of affected workers Designing the necessary training and reskilling programs to support workers’ transition into new jobs or encourage entrepreneurship Policy or legislation should be developed to steer and enable regional and local…

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