China Country Reports

China’s New Energy Vehicle Strategy Supported by the World’s Largest Vehicle Charging Station Network

China has been the world’s largest and most important car market now for a number of years, with an estimated 302 million passenger cars on the road. More cars are produced and sold in China than in the USA or in the EU despite some decline in sales in more recent years. The China Association…

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Climate Change Effects in China Exceed the Global Average, Leading to an Annual Average of US $40 Billion in Overall Economic Loss and Damages

China, like many countries, has been feeling the effects of climate change over the past decades in the form of an increase in extreme weather events. Some estimates say that floods, droughts, and storms are incurring direct economic losses of 25 to 37.5 billion USD per year. Other reports place that number at 1% of…

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China to Step Up Climate Efforts with Monitoring Pilots and Enhanced Policy

In past articles, we discussed the importance of data monitoring, availability, and quality in order to track emissions developments resulting from policies and required measures introduced by governments.China has been notoriously lagging in data availability, quality, and reporting. Data must be collected, for example, from companies included in the various Emissions Trading Systems across the…

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China: Climate Progress Indicators

Significant improvement in air quality index (AQI) in eight Chinese cities from March to June 2022; slight decrease in coal output from April 2021 to April 2022; a drop of 14.5 in wind energy output while a 25% growth rate in solar PV between April 2021 and April 2022.Aggregated actual emission data from China is…

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China’s Youth Think China Should Do More to Support Shortcomings in Climate Research on Carbon Reducing Technology

Environmental protection has been on the minds of young Chinese for decades. When I introduced my company’s environmental youth education program in China in 2003, university students from bachelor freshmen to master’s students were active in all types of on-campus programs, “Green Clubs” and other activities to disseminate knowledge and create awareness for waste water…

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Natural Gas Use Contributed to Cleaner Air and Lower Emissions in China but is Slated to Take Second Seat to Renewables in Future Plans

China’s National Bureau of Statistics publishes an official Balance Sheet for natural gas both in English and Chinese. It illustrates that gas consumption has more than tripled over the past 10 years from 89.5 billion m3 to nearly 306 billion m3 in 2019. This reflects China’s strategy of the decade to introduce more natural gas…

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The Effect of the Russian Invasion of Ukraine on China’s Climate Policy and Practices

The relationship between China and Russia has been under scrutiny by many since Russia marched its army into Ukraine some weeks ago. China appears to be standing with Russia against much criticism from many in the global community. Russia speaks of reinforced friendship and strong relationships between the two countries. At first glance, this may…

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China: Climate Progress Report

Indicator: Energy Output of Coal (monthly, quarterly, and annually) Renewable Energy Output (monthly, quarterly, and annually) Air and Water Quality Data (Daily) Gross Ecological Product (measurement still in process) Energy security while transitioning to low-carbon energy provision continues to be the number one priority of the Chinese government. The most recently released “Opinions on Improving…

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Climate Justice in China

HIGHLIGHTS Climate change hits urban and rural areas equally “Climate poverty” affects at-risk agricultural communities and communities dependent on the ecological health of their water bodies Groups of affected people are highly diverse and can be found in all parts of China Minority ethnic groups, such as Tibetan and Uighurs, also have access to the…

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China: The 2021 Climate Year in Review

HIGHLIGHTS Adoption of 14th Five Year Plan, a Development Model Promoting Advanced Clean Technologies, that Pollute Less and Save Energy Roll Out of Emissions Trading Program Extreme Weather Patterns in China’s Hinterland Trigger Greater Emphasis on Developing Climate Adaptation and Resilience Programs Commitment to End All Financing of Coal-Based Power Plants Outside of China China Submits Revised…

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FILE - In this Nov. 28, 2019 file photo, smoke and steam rise from a coal processing plant in Hejin in central China's Shanxi Province. Chinese President Xi Jinping says his country will aim to stop pumping additional carbon dioxide, the main global warming gas, into the atmosphere by 2060. Xi's announcement during a speech Tuesday, Sept. 22, 2020, to the U.N. General Assembly is a significant step for the world's biggest emitter of greenhouse gases and was immediately cheered by climate campaigners. (AP Photo/Sam McNeil, File)

Climate Mitigation Strategic Priorities for China

Priorities Nationwide programs to identify the impact of closing polluting industries such as coal mines, coal-fired power plants etc. on the livelihood of affected workers Designing the necessary training and reskilling programs to support workers’ transition into new jobs or encourage entrepreneurship Policy or legislation should be developed to steer and enable regional and local…

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FILE - In this Nov. 28, 2019 file photo, smoke and steam rise from a coal processing plant in Hejin in central China's Shanxi Province. Chinese President Xi Jinping says his country will aim to stop pumping additional carbon dioxide, the main global warming gas, into the atmosphere by 2060. Xi's announcement during a speech Tuesday, Sept. 22, 2020, to the U.N. General Assembly is a significant step for the world's biggest emitter of greenhouse gases and was immediately cheered by climate campaigners. (AP Photo/Sam McNeil, File)

Climate Scorecard Progress Report for China

This report is in the form of memos from Climate Scorecard Country Managers to Patricia Espinosa, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework to Combat Climate Change (UNFCCC). Below is a description of the progress the country has made made in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions since the Paris Agreement was signed in 2015 and the…

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China to Close CO2 Emissions Tracking Gap to Achieve 2030 and 2060 Climate Goals with Establishment of Carbon Emissions Statistical Accounting Working Group

Best Organizational Sources: Carbon Emissions Statistical Tracking Group; The Ministry of Ecology and Environment (MEE); The Energy Administration; Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs   At the end of August 2021, China’s National Development and Reform Commission and National Bureau of Statistics set up a Carbon Emission Statistical Accounting Working Group with the target to…

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China Is Getting Hotter and Wetter in Both Urban and Coastal Areas

China continues to get hotter and wetter, troublingly not just along the coastal cities used to annual typhoons. Flooding caused by torrential rains and typhoons have started to increasingly hit China’s inland and Northern cities. In July, torrential rains unloading the equivalent of a year’s worth of rainfall in just three days caused major flooding…

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After Two Decades of Stalled Development, China to Ramp up Nuclear Power Development

Nuclear power has played a relatively minor role in China’s overall primary energy strategy over the past two decades. While nuclear power has risen from roughly 1% of total primary energy supply in China at the beginning of the 2000s, it hovers around 4% today. China prioritized natural gas, oil, hydro, and even wind and…

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Divergent Central and Local Government Interests May Impede Implementation of China’s Climate Targets 

Central planning vs. local sustainable implementation At the end of 2020, China officially pledged to peak carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 and to become carbon neutral in 2060, a decade later than other regions, like the EU. A concrete roadmap on how to achieve this transition, however, has not yet been published. And while the…

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While GHG Levels Keep Rising With Increasing Industrial Activity in China, Carbon Intensity Has Been On Continuous Downward Trajectory

Current GHG Emissions China’s most recent data on Greenhouse Gas emissions, or most concretely on carbon dioxide emissions, is covered by a number of databases. A wide variety of databases follow greenhouse gas emissions developments in China. Their data for 2019 CO2 and CO2 equivalent (CO2e) emissions range from 11,535.20 – 13,553 MtCO2e/year, compared to…

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Spotlight: Shenzhen has Transformed to One of China’s Cities with the Lowest Air Pollution Rate

In 2010, the Chinese government designated Shenzhen, a city of about 13 million inhabitants in the south of China, to be among 11 provinces and cities to develop and pilot low-carbon solutions for industry, transport, renewable energy, construction, consumption and ecology. China’s government uses pilot projects to spur low-carbon urbanization, and designated locations must prepare…

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The Chinese Government as Solar Power Entrepreneur and the Examples of Suntech and Longi Green Energy Technology Company

Geopolitical interests drive creation of solar energy leaders Over the past 20 years China has emerged as the world leader in solar energy technology. At the end of 2019, China’s total installed capacity of solar PV power made up 204 GW of energy. Government investment into solar panel producers, subsidies, and access to government bank…

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Recommendations for Climate Mitigation in China: A Community-Based Employment and Development Program

Recommendation # 1: A Community-Based Employment and Development Program Program Recommendation # 2: A Clean-Tech Funding and Consulting Program for Small and Mid-sized Companies President Xi’s bold commitment to make China carbon-neutral by 2060 during the UN Climate summit in 2020 raised hopes that the world’s largest carbon emitting country will finally take the necessary…

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Electricity Consumption and Renewable Usage Have Increased in China While Steady Energy Intensity Has Decreased

Figures for China’s electricity consumption and the energy mix behind it differ across various relevant monitors. The International Energy Agency states China’s electricity consumption for 2018 was roughly 6.833 Terawatt Hours (TWh)—an increase of nearly 1079% since 1990. Coal-generated and hydro-generated electricity made up the largest proportion of the country’s energy usage, followed by wind…

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China’s CO2 Emissions Have Been Constantly Increasing Over the Past Two Decades With a Steep Increase of 3.4% From 2018-2019

Recently Reported Greenhouse Gas Emissions Level: 9,528.21 Megatons in 2018 Compared to 2088.85 Megatons in 1990 (IEA) 9,825.8 Megatons in 2019 Compared to 2,323.8 Megatons in 1990 (IEA) 11,535.20 Megatons in 2019 Compared to 2,404.74 Megatons in 1990 (EDGAR)Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reports for China vary in numbers but are unified in that they cover…

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FILE - In this Nov. 28, 2019 file photo, smoke and steam rise from a coal processing plant in Hejin in central China's Shanxi Province. Chinese President Xi Jinping says his country will aim to stop pumping additional carbon dioxide, the main global warming gas, into the atmosphere by 2060. Xi's announcement during a speech Tuesday, Sept. 22, 2020, to the U.N. General Assembly is a significant step for the world's biggest emitter of greenhouse gases and was immediately cheered by climate campaigners. (AP Photo/Sam McNeil, File)

China Pledges to be Carbon Neutral by 2060

China surprised the world in September with a pledge to take further action in combating climate change and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. The first pledge was made to leaders of the European Union mid-September, then reiterated in President Xi’s speech to the UN General Assembly. Neither announcement provided any details as to how carbon…

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Chinese Academy of Sciences and Others Lead Climate Research in China

In China, climate change and environmental pollution mitigation research has been playing an increasingly important role, especially since 2012 when President Xi formalized the concept of “ecological civilization”. Numerous organizations are conducting research into the environmental effects of economic development. They can be divided into four categories: Government-funded think tanks which research informs macro socio-economic…

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