This post was submitted by Climate Scorecard Ukraine Country Manager Anastasiia Bushovska
Best Organizational Source: Ministry of Energy and Environmental Protection
The most complete and comprehensive emissions data is provided in the National Inventory of Anthropogenic Emissions from Sources and Absorption by Greenhouse Gas Absorbers in Ukraine for 1990-2019. This data is used for national reporting to the UNFCCC and is produced annually, describing emissions two years back. It contains data on emissions by industry, but the data is entirely based on calculations since the emission monitoring system does not function yet. Moreover, the data includes calculations for non-government-controlled areas (Crimea and Eastern Ukraine) but there is no certainty on what exactly happens in those areas and which facilities are functioning (and how) due to the ongoing conflict. That brings uncertainty into the data because of access impossibility and absent monitoring of any kind. Despite that, the calculation methodology is internationally approved—arguably making it the most reliable.
There is also an inventory of emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere from stationary sources of pollution, total emissions by sources and emission change by the Ukrainian State Statistics service. It is also provided annually describing the past years, so the latest available data is for 2020. Most data is provided in the first document (emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere from stationary sources of pollution). It contains data on:
- emissions per any possible polluting compound without specifying the industries;
- generalized emissions per administrative region;
- metal and metal-containing compounds, PM (particulate matter), nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, non-methane volatile compounds methane, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, emissions per region;
- air emissions per industry;
- carbon dioxide emissions per industry;
- air emissions by regions and towns;
- categorized emissions per industry.
Unlike the previous source, this one contains the data without consideration of non-government-controlled areas. And again, the data provided is based on calculations, although the methodology is different. The data is based on emission reports provided by polluters, and these reports are obligatory to be submitted to the State Statistics service. Otherwise, the enterprise is fined or is subject to unscheduled inspection. Still, the issues with differing methodologies and quality appear.
Finally, the State Statistics service summarizes the data in general environmental reports, with the latest provided for 2017-2019, 2015, 2010.
The first step towards emission monitoring was done with issuing the Law On the Principles of Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions. It came to force only at the beginning of 2021, so the monitoring system is not fully functioning yet. Hopefully, the data on emissions will be more reliable when the first results are going to be available in 2022.
Currently, there is a public environmental data system (EcoSystem) under development. It is expected to grow further, and provide emission data among other data. The idea for this system is to unify all monitoring information on one website.
Until 2021 , it is not clear how the emissions were calculated. Therefore, some reports were of questionable quality, especially in the energy sector.
Quality and reliability of the climate emissions data produced by the country:
Rating: ** Fair
(at least until the monitoring becomes fully functioning)
Four Stars (****): Outstanding
Three stars (***): Good
Two stars (**): Fair
One star (*): Poor
Platonova Antonina, chief specialist in Climate Change Adaptation Policy and Climate Reporting Division of Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources