Thailand Lacks an International Climate Finance Plan That Will Help Mobilize Donor Support

Spotlight Activity: Thailand Lacks an International Climate Finance Plan That Will Help Mobilize Donor Support

In order to achieve the NDC targets of around 20 to 25% greenhouse gas reductions from the Business-As-Usual (BAU) by the year 2030, Thailand aims to facilitate climate change mitigation and adaptation projects for transitioning to low carbon society. Accordingly, Thailand has allocated certain proportions of its national budget expenditure towards the facilitation of climate change mitigation and adaptation projects.

These annual allocations in 2009, 2010 and 2011 were not enough to finance all the adaptation and mitigation projects, which Thailand has in place. This is why Thailand is a recipient country as it needs international climate funds in order to finance and implement the adaptation and mitigation projects in place. In this regard, it has been proposed that the Green Climate Fund (GCF) is likely to finance different climate change mitigation projects in Thailand.

International climate funds for Thailand include other sources as well. One such source is the Adaptation Fund, which focuses on the adaptation aspects in the country. The objective of the adaptation fund is “to finance concrete adaptation projects and programs in developing countries that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol”. The eligibility criteria for receiving the adaptation fund are that “Developing countries be particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. “At the 13th meeting of the Adaptation Trust Fund Board, the Board approved a cap of USD 10 million for each country funded for support by the Adaptation Fund”. With respect to Thailand’s context no specific amount of Adaptation Funds were allocated to date.

The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) is another international source of climate funds and it specifically focuses on the mitigation projects in the country. The objective of CTF is that it “aims to support the rapid deployment of low-carbon technologies on a significant scale, with the objective of cost-effective reductions in the growth of greenhouse gas emissions”. The eligibility criteria of the CTF is that “Country access is based upon a) ODA-eligibility (according to OECD/DAC guidelines), and b) an active multilateral development bank (MDB) country programme. In Thailand’s context, a “national investment plan was endorsed in 2009 for USD 300 million”.

The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility is another major international source of climate funding for Thailand. The objective of this fund is “to assist developing countries in their effort to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)”. The eligibility criteria of this fund are that “All borrowing member countries of the IBRD or IDA that are located in subtropical or tropical areas are eligible. However, priority is given to countries with substantial forest areas and forest carbon stocks and to those that have forests that are important for the livelihoods of forest dwellers and indigenous peoples”. With respect to the allocation of this fund, “Thailand prepared a Readiness Plan Idea Note (R-PIN) in 2009. A Grant Agreement for USD 0.2 million was signed in 2011”.

Another source of international climate fund for Thailand is the GEF Trust Fund- Climate Change focal area also known as GEF-5. The objective of this fund is “To help developing countries and economies in transition to contribute to the overall objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)”. The eligibility criteria for this fund are “a) GEF grants are made available within the framework of the financial mechanisms of the UNFCCC and should be in conformity with the eligibility criteria decided by the Conference of the Parties. b) A country is an eligible recipient of GEF grants if it is eligible to borrow from the World Bank or if it is an eligible recipient of UNDP technical assistance through its country Indicative Planning Figure (IPF)”. With respect to the grant which Thailand received, “under GEF-4 between 2008-2010, four Thai projects received funding of USD 11 million”.

The International Climate Initiative of the German Government (ICI) is also crucial source of Thailand’s climate funding. ICI addresses all the components of climate change. The core objective of ICI is “to provide financial support to international projects supporting climate change mitigation, adaptation and biodiversity projects with climate relevance”. The eligibility requirements for ICI are “Focuses on a number of countries that have a high potential for emissions reduction.” The fund also focuses on innovative projects. According to the funds received by Thailand from ICI “Six ICI projects have been implemented in Thailand since 2008, with a grant contribution of USD 13 million”.

Japan’s Fast Start Finance also contributed significantly to Thailand’s efforts to combat climate change. This fund focuses on all the components of climate change and its objective is “To assist developing countries to address climate change”. The eligibility requirements of the fund are “Disbursement of funds is dependent on bilateral policy consultations with Japan”. According to the grants received by Thailand from Japan’s Fast Start Finance “One grant funded project for USD 8 million in 2010 (Forest Preservation Project)”.

Finally, the Special Climate Change Fund also provided vast proportions of international climate funds for Thailand. The objective of this fund is “to implement long-term adaptation measures that increase the resilience of national development sectors to the impacts of climate change”. The eligibility criteria for this fund are “All Non-Annex 1 countries of the UNFCCC are eligible to apply”. The grant received by Thailand from this fund is “One grant funded project for USD 0.9 million in 2009 (Strengthening the capacity of vulnerable coastal communities)”.

At present, climate funds from different international sources along with systematic budgetary allocations of climate funding at a national level are urgently required, if Thailand is to achieve its NDC targets of 20 to 25% greenhouse gas reductions by 2030. However, there are shortages of climate funds associated with the national budget allocations and the grants received from international sources by Thailand. Some international organizations are reluctant to fund for different adaptation and mitigation projects in Thailand due to their stringent eligibility criteria for grants, which Thailand is unable to qualify for. International funders have so far been unwilling to provide funding at the scale needed to implement some of Thailand’s larger climate change projects.

To know more about Thailand’s national budgetary allocation for climate change mitigation and adaptation projects, please visit the UNFCCC 2016 Report at: http://unfccc.int/files/cooperation_and_support/financial_mechanism/standing_committee/application/pdf/2016_ba_technical_report.pdf

To know more about the international sources of climate funding, which Thailand received and the associated challenges of Thailand’s climate finance both on a national and international level, please visit:
https://www.climatefinance-developmenteffectiveness.org/sites/default/files/documents/05_02_15/thailand%20cpeir%20report_final_24%20june.pdf

Status: Right Direction

By allocating certain proportions from Thailand’s national budget towards climate change mitigation and adaptation projects, the country is taking positive steps in terms of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions on a national and regional-scale. Similarly, funds provided by international sources are certainly beneficial for the enhancement of climate change adaptation and mitigation projects in Thailand. However, more needs to be done in terms of the increasing the efficiency of climate financing in Thailand. As Thailand is a recipient country in terms of climate funds, emphasis needs to be given for strategies, which can boost large-scale climate financing from international sources. Such strategies can be developed by formulating a concrete climate financing action plan at a national-level. The climate financing action plan should also incorporate backup fund saving measures, which seems to be lacking at present. Also, in order to prevent shortages of climate funds, there should be continual auditing by respective authorities for ensuring that the fund/grant provided by the Thai Government or international sources are at par with the total costs associated with the project. This in turn will help in the proper utilization of the climate funds for respective projects, thereby building trust among donors and enhancing the prospects of funding large-scale adaptation and mitigation projects in the country.

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Your message will be sent to:

Dr. Raweewan Bhuridej, Secretary General
Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning
60/1 Soi Pibulwatana 7, Rama VI Road,
Phayathai, Bangkok 10400 Thailand
Telephone: 0-2265-6506, Fax: 0-2265-6506
Email: rawewan@onep.go.th

Dr. Asadaporn Kraipanont, Deputy Secretary General?
Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning
60/1 Soi Pibulwatana 7, Rama VI Road,?Phayathai, Bangkok 10400 Thailand
Telephone: 0-2265-6505, Fax: 0-2265-6506
Email: kasdaporn@gmail.com

????????????????????????????????????????????

????????????????????? NDC ?????? 20 ??? 25% ???????????????????????? ??? Business-As-Usual (BAU) ?????2030,????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.

????????????????????2009,2010???2011???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????. ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.?????????????????????????????????????????????(GCF)??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ? ???????. ??????????????????????? Adaptation Fund??????????????????????????????????.???????????????????????????????????????”????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”.”????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? “??????????????????? 13 ?????????????????????????????????????????????? (Adaptation Trust Fund Board) ??????????????????????????10???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”.???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.

????????????????????(CleanTechnologyFund,CTF)??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.???????????????CTF???”??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”.???????????????????CTF???”????????????????????????????) ?????????????? ODA (??????????????? OECD / DAC) ????) ???????????????????????????? (MDB) ?????????????”. ?????????????????????????????? “???????????????????????? ???? 2009 ?????? 300 ??????????????? “.

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.???????????????????????????”??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????(REDD)”.?????????????????????????????”?????????????????????????IBRD????IDA???????????????????????????????????????.?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”.????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? (Readiness Plan Idea Note: R-PIN) ??2009. ??????????????????????????????????????? 0.2 ??????????????? ??2011.

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? GEF Trust Fund- Climate Change ???????????????GEF5.???????????????????????????”??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????(UNFCCC)”.???????????????????????????????(?)??????????????GEF????????????????????????????????????????UNFCCC ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????. b) ??????????????????? GEF ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? UNDP ????????????????????????? (IPF)”. ????????????????????????????????”?????? GEF-4 ??????? 2008-2010, ?????????????????????????????????????????? 11 ??????????????? “.

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????(ICI)??????????????????????????????????????????????????????. ICI ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????. ??????????????????? ICI ???”?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”.???????????????????????ICI???”???????????????????????????????????????????????????????” ??????????????????????????????????????. ???????????????????????????? ICI”??????? ICI ????? 6 ?????????????????????????????????????? ???????2008, ???????????????????? 13 ??????????????? “.

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”.???????????????????????????????????”???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”. ???????????????????????????? Fast Start Finance ???????????????????????????????????????????????? 8 ???????????????2010(??????????????????) “.

?????????????????????????????????????????(SpecialClimateChangeFund)???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.???????????????????????????”???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????”. ???????????????????????????? “?????????????????????? 1 ??? UNFCCC ?????????????”. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 0.9 ???????????????2009(??????????????????????????????????????????????) “.

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? NDC ????????????????????????????? 20 ??? 25% ???2030.????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? UNFCCC 2016 ?????????:
http://unfccc.int/files/cooperation_and_support/financial_mechanism/standing_committee/application/pdf/2016_ba_technical_report.pdf

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????:
https://www.climatefinance-developmenteffectiveness.org/sites/default/files/documents/05_02_15/thailand%20cpeir%20report_final_24%20june.pdf

??????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.??????????????????????????????????????????????????,??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????,??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.

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?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????:

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.??????????????????????.????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????(ONEP),????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????. ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????. ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????/????????????????????????????,?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.

????????????????????????????????:

??. Raweewan Bhuridej
?????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
60/1 7?????????????????????? ????????? 6,
???????????? 10400 ?????????
????????: 0-2265-6506, ?????: 0-2265-6506
?????: rawewan@onep.go.th

??. Asadaporn Kraipanont
????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????
60/1 7?????????????????????? ????????? 6,
???????????? 10400 ?????????
????????: 0-2265-6505, ?????: 0-2265-6506
?????: kasdaporn@gmail.com

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