Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area (TEDA)
The Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area – short TEDA – is a 440,000 m2 area between Tianjin City and the adjacent coast, housing some 600,000 inhabitants, comprising 10,000 industrial companies, more than 1,000 manufacturing companies, hospitals, high schools, etc. It was established in 1984 as one of China’s earliest national-level development zones. TEDA is a typical example among the 230 state-level economic and technological development zones and the more than 2,500 provincial-level development zones in China. It was in 2001 that TEDA introduced the concept of an Eco-Industrial Park (EIP), which is committed to the sustainable development of the park. Despite the industrial-focused name of the EIPs, they are mixed developments with residential, commercial, and cultural aspects, all integrating green or environmentally friendly and economic development concepts. TEDA follows national-level development strategies for green industrial park establishment. Still, its role is to test these in practice and produce insights from the implementation to develop national policy further.
Industrial Development focuses on Circular Economy and Energy Efficiency.
In 2012, TEDA was officially designated as one of the first recycling pilot areas to develop circular economy models focusing on four major industries: electronics & information technology, healthcare, automotive, and new chemical materials. The area’s government was tasked to pilot eco-design concepts to promote energy efficiency in construction, wastewater treatment and hazardous waste management, air quality controls, and recycling. To this end, the local authorities encouraged downstream recycling companies to settle within the zone and to provide services such as electrical waste or battery recycling. Its policies also encouraged the application of LCA principles, i.e., the consideration of eco-design in production and greening of the entire supply chain, including responsible waste treatment or management. TEDA provided integrated environmental infrastructure by building and operating centralized wastewater treatment facilities and waste recycling centers to support company circularity efforts. In 2017, TEDA achieved the first stage of the required results and passed validation as a National Recycling Pilot Project.
A second core focus related to climate change mitigation was energy efficiency. It is the first step to reducing emissions – and to save costs. Therefore, local authorities promoted energy efficiency measures in production and industrial processes, using green energy sources and providing for transforming the energy structure by integrating green power stations.
Collaborating for Green Practices
As a mixed development park, there are many parties within TEDA: residents, authorities, unions, companies, etc. They pursue different pathways to achieve ecological and economic development. At the heart of all these stakeholder groups is TEDA’s Eco Center, which provides a platform to bridge between them. The Center facilitates joint seminars and training on sustainable practices and offers consulting on green activities for enterprises and government. Residents are encouraged to, for example, engage in second-hand market trading activities to learn about responsible consumption. TEDA’s Eco Center supports companies’ open-door events and trainings for students. They organize CSR conferences, promote the publication of annual CSR reports, offer public trainings on calculating one’s carbon footprint and reducing personal emissions in daily life, and promote the use of green products.
Monitoring of Implementation Progress
TEDA has also established an IT-based environmental monitoring system to measure implementation progress. The system has been capturing data for
- air quality
- water quality
- noise quality
Regarding climate change indicators, the first carbon emission targets were set in 2020, while key energy-using units were encouraged, per the relevant requirements, to establish carbon emission inventories. Local authorities commission third-party organizations to conduct the annual validation of data. The respectively validated emission data is then used as the basis for them to engage in carbon trading.
Several factors have contributed to the success of TEDA in establishing itself as a green development pilot zone and implementing green development policies. Firstly, local authorities have actively engaged in international dialogue and experience-sharing with foreign governments like Denmark. Furthermore, local government held in-depth exchanges with leading multinational companies, learning from their manufacturing experience and sharing ideas. Beyond exchange, the local government actively engaged in facilitating green manufacturing by setting up incentive programs such as the Policy for Promotion of Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency policy. As early as 2007, the TEDA government started offering up to 100 million CNY yearly to companies implementing energy efficiency measures.
Consequently, TEDA has become a demonstration area for green policy implementation, from which other areas actively learn and adopt successful implementation models. In 2016/2017, TEDA won the National Green Industrial Zone Award, which the National Development and Reform Commission granted. Given that China’s second-largest source of emissions is its large industrial production base, pilot areas such as TEDA continue to play a significant role in China’s low-carbon transformation. Policies implemented and tested here will continue to guide other industrial areas working on transforming their industrial sectors to achieve the 3060 goals of carbon breaking and neutrality.
Green Partnership of Industrial Parks
This Post was submitted by Climate Scorecard China Country Manager Annette Wiedenbach.
天津经济技术开发区–简称 “泰达”–是天津市与毗邻海岸之间的一个面积达 44 万平方米的区域，居住着约 60 万居民，包括 1 万家工业企业、1000 多家制造企业、医院、高中等。它成立于 1984 年，是中国最早的国家级开发区之一。如今，在中国国家级经济技术开发区有230家，省级开发区有2500多家。泰达是其中的典型范例。在2001年泰达引入生态工业园理念，致力于园区可持续发展。尽管生态工业园区的名称以工业为重点，但也在住宅、商业、文化中，将绿色或环保以及经济发展方面融合。泰达遵循建立绿色工业园区的国家级发展战略，但其作用是在实践中检验这些战略，并从实施中获得启示，以进一步制定国家政策。
2012 年，泰达成为国家首批循环化改造试点地区之一，重点探索为电子信息技术、医疗保健、汽车和化工新材料四大产业开发循环经济模式。该地区政府的任务是遵循生态设计理念，推动建筑节能、工业企业清洁生产、废水处理和危险废物管理以及空气质量控制和废弃物回收利用。为此，当地政府鼓励下游回收公司落户该区，提供电子废物或电池回收等服务。其政策还鼓励应用生命周期评估原则，即在生产中考虑生态设计，并推动整个供应链的绿色化转型，包括负责任的废物处理或管理。泰达提供集成化的环境基础设施通过建设运营废水集中处理设施以及废物回收中心，为园区企业提供循环经济支撑 . 2017 年，泰达通过国家循环化改造试点项目的验收，取得了第一阶段的成效。
泰达成功建立绿色发展试验区并实施绿色发展政策有几个因素。首先，地方政府积极开展开展国际对话与交流，分享经验，例如丹麦。地方政府与领先的跨国公司深入交流，学习他们的生产经验，分享理念。除交流外，地方政府还积极推动绿色制造，例如制定了《促进环境保护和能源效率政策》等激励计划。早在 2007 年，泰达政府就开始向实施节能措施的企业提供每年高达 1亿元人民币的奖励。
因此，天津开发区已成为绿色政策实施的示范区，其他地区积极学习并采用成功的实施模式。2016/2017 年 泰达荣获国家发改委颁发的 “国家绿色工业园区奖”。鉴于中国的第二大排放源是以大型工业生产为基础的排放源，像天津开发区这样的试点地区将继续在中国的低碳转型中发挥重要作用。在这里实施和检验的政策将继续为其他工业地区的工业部门转型提供指导，以实现碳减排和碳中和的 3060 目标。