This Post was submitted by Climate Scorecard Spain Country Manager Wendy Paredes
Best Organizational Source: The Spanish Emissions Inventory System, Ministry for the Ecological Transition
The largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions in Spain (at the national level) are from energy, industrial processes, agriculture, land use, land use change, forestry, and waste.
Spanish Inventory System
The Spanish Emissions Inventory System annually prepares an Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from anthropogenic sources, as well as their absorption by sinks, under the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol and Regulation to monitor greenhouse gas emissions.
Besides the Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Spain periodically prepares projections of emissions and their removal into the atmosphere. Both allow assessing compliance with the commitments assumed by Spain within the emissions frameworks of international and European regulations. Likewise, they are the basis for the development of emission mitigation policies and measures and for the evaluation of their effectiveness in achieving their objectives.
The Spanish Emissions Inventory System prepares and updates the National Inventory Report (NIR) which includes the anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks for seven groups or species of direct greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). Likewise, the emissions of the following indirect greenhouse gases are included: carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), nitrogen oxides (NOX), and sulfur oxides (SOX).
This report takes into account the current reporting guidelines, by which the emission estimates are grouped into five major IPPC sectors: Energy, Industrial Processes and Use of Other Products, Agriculture, Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry and Waste. It also includes the supplementary information required under the Kyoto Protocol regarding the accounting of emissions and removals from activities in the land use sector, changes in land use and mandatory forestry.
This report is complemented by the emissions data presented in the Common Reporting Format (CRF tables). Emissions and removals have been expressed in terms of CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq).
National Institute of Statistics
The National Institute of Statistics is an autonomous body to which the Spanish Law assigns a prominent role in public statistical activity, expressly entrusting it to carry out large-scale statistical operations such as demographic and economic censuses, national accounts, and demographic and social statistics.
This institute oversees publishing the Environmental Accounting, which aims to integrate environmental information in a coherent manner in the central system of National Accounts. It comprises a set of satellite accounts, of annual transmission, prepared from accounting formats applicable to the different sectoral and territorial areas, with a strong presence of physical data. They show the interactions between the economy, households, and environmental factors.
The Accounts of Emissions to the atmosphere present data on polluting emissions to the atmosphere, in a manner compatible with the System of National Accounts, recording the emitting agents disaggregated by branches of economic activity and households as final consumers.
The estimates of the Account of emissions to the atmosphere are made from the National Inventories of Emissions to the Atmosphere, prepared by the Ministry for the Ecological Transition, which use the IPCC and EMEP/EEA methodology, with the NFR/CRF nomenclature, which groups issues into sectors, categories, and subcategories.
Sector Data Sources in Spain
The Undersecretariat of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food prepares and publishes periodic, monographs or conjuncture reports and analyzes, which offer current information, as well as the main numbers from the agricultural, livestock, fisheries, and food sectors, in which the emissions from Agricultural activities are included.
Ministry for the Ecological Transition and the Demographic Challenge
The Ministry for the Ecological Transition and the Demographic challenge creates every year statistics and energy balances in a document called “The energy book of Spain”. This book contains the evolution of the energy market in Spain during the current year, with detailed analysis of energy balances and emissions, as well as the new legal regulations governing the sector.
The Spanish Electric Network is the sole carrier and operator of the Spanish electricity system. It has the vision of efficiently contributing to decarbonize the economy and connect with citizens through technological innovation, the sustainable extension of electrification and telecommunications, guaranteeing connectivity and access to the new renewable generation and favoring the cohesion of the territory and social inclusion. The Spanish Electric Network presents the annual evolution of emissions associated with electricity generation in million tons of CO2.
The Observatory of Transport and Logistics in Spain is a tool for consultation and reference on transport and logistics that is openly available to all those interested in the matter. It aims to guarantee the transparency of transport and logistics information. To do this, it makes statistical data and indicators available to users. It also produces annual reports in which a transversal analysis of transport is carried out from the perspective of mobility, competitiveness, operational safety of transport, environmental sustainability, and logistics. The information is presented through graphs, and maps.
The Ministries of Industry, Energy and Tourism, and Ministry of Development create a document with the purpose to review and update the coefficients for the transition from final energy to primary energy, and to CO2 emissions, of the different energies used in the building sector.
Quality and reliability of the climate emissions data produced by the country:
Rating: *** Good
Four Stars (****): Outstanding
Three stars (***): Good
Two stars (**): Fair
One star (*): Poor
Ismael Aznar Cano, General Director of Quality and Environmental Assessment