In 1999, Indonesia submitted an Initial National Communication (INC) document to the newly formed United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), which estimated the country’s GHG emissions for the year 1990. Later, in 2010, the country submitted a Second National Communication (SNC) covering GHG emissions for the time series between 2000 and 2005. This was followed by the first Biennial Update Report (First BUR) submitted in 2014 that estimated GHG emissions between the years 2006 to 2010. The third National Communication (TNC) submitted in 2017 estimates GHG emissions between the years 2000 to 2014. Further, in 2018, Indonesia submitted the second Biennial Update Report (Second BUR), which provides information on greenhouse gas emissions and trends between 2000 and 2016. The country submitted the latest GHG emissions report in 2021, which formed the third Biennial Update Report (Third BUR). The Third BUR is an improved version of the Second BUR that includes several enhancements and modifications to the National Circumstances; Anthropogenic Emissions by Sources and Sinks: National GHG Inventory Report; information about mitigation measures and how they work; Information on Financial Gaps and Constraints, Technical Needs and Capacity Requirements; Domestic Monitoring Reporting Updated; and Validation. The third BUR presents GHG emissions up to 2019.
How GHG inventories and reports are made?
Implementing GHG inventory activities was outsourced to the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) from 2010 to 2015 under the “Project of Capacity Development for Climate Change Strategies in Indonesia’’. This technical cooperation identified issues and uncertainty in the reported GHG inventories and helped to iron them out by catalyzing to build endogenous capacity. The agency assisted in collecting and developing data for improving the accuracy of GHG inventories. The Ministry of Environment, Indonesia, now oversees the inventory preparation work under Presidential Decree No. 71/2011. The ministry prepares guidelines, coordinates the national GHG inventory, and monitors and evaluates GHG implementation activities. The ministry has established a dedicated center to disseminate guidelines and provide capacity building for the ministries and the local government. The central government, provincial and district organizations, and institutions are expected to coordinate further and operationalize GHG inventory creation activities for Energy, Industrial Processes and Product Use (IPPU), Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use (AFOLU), and Waste sectors.
Updates from the third Biennial Update Report (Third BUR) published in 2021
According to the inventory in 2019, the total GHG emissions for the three leading greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) was 1,845,067 Gg CO2e. AFOLU, including peat fires, contributed the most (50.13%), then energy (34.49%), garbage (6.52%), and other sectors. However, the FOLU sector’s peat fire emissions climbed beyond the baseline level in 2019, making it the year with the lowest emission reduction, with a total of 39,000 Gg CO2e. Whereas, for the energy sector, the emission reduction achieved due to mitigation actions in 2019 was 64,717 Gg CO2e. The mitigation actions that made this reduction possible were (i) end use energy efficiency measures through activities related to energy conservation and audits, (ii) fuel switch to less carbon emission fuel in residential and transport sector, (iii) use of renewable energy for power generation, (iv) deployment of Clean Coal Technology (CCT), (v) utilisation of biofuel and (vi) use of alternative fuels in industry.
The report also outlines the technological, financial, and capacity-building needs to achieve the 29% emission reduction target set for 2030. The government of Indonesia is still working towards streamlining GHG inventory processes to improve the National Registry System. It also ensures that all the mitigation activities undertaken by Stakeholder and Non-Stakeholder Parties are captured and stated in the following report submission.
Thus, the GHG inventory submissions by the country are intermittent, and so far, emissions only up to 2019 are reported. The reports are accessible through the Internet and are available for public viewing. The country requires further capacity-building efforts to push forward the inventory preparation work to provide yearly updates on the GHG emissions from different sectors. The National focal contact point for the inventory coordination and submission is Ms. Ir. Laksmi Dewanthi, Director General for Climate Change, Ministry of Environment and Forestry.
Based on the above explanation, the country can be rated C – Produces comprehensive Reports no more than two years old.
This Post was submitted by Climate Scorecard Indonesia Country Manager Netra Naik.
Ms. Ir. Laksmi Dewanthi
Phone: +62 21 573 0144