Saudi Arabia: Climate Progress Report

The names of the performance indicators we can use to regularly measure the progress Saudi Arabia is making to reduce its emissions are total CO2 emissions, total primary energy consumption and cost of fuel energy, total petroleum generation, and total renewable energy generation.

The amount of total CO2 emissions describes emissions of carbon dioxide produced in Saudi Arabia in a given year from the burning of fossil fuels for energy and cement production. It is a direct indicator of whether Saudi Arabia is reducing the amount of CO2 produced from its economic and industrial activities or if it’s increasing its carbon footprint and exacerbating the effects of climate change. Total energy consumption describes the quantity of all energy necessary to satisfy domestic demands. Cost of fuel energy measures the end-use prices paid by consumers with or without taxes and subsidies. Total petroleum generation measures the amount of all petroleum products that Saudi Arabia generates and consists of liquid fuels, including crude oil and lease condensate, tight oil, extra-heavy oil, and bitumen. In addition, various processes produce natural gas plant liquids (NGPL), biofuels, and other liquid fuels, some as a result of refinery processing gain. Total renewable energy generation measures the amount of renewable energy Saudi Arabia generates from solar, wave, tide, and fuel cell in billion kilowatts per hour (kWh).

Amount of total CO2 emissions is measured on the basis of sheer volume of production in million tons of CO2 while total energy consumption is measured in million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and both are updated yearly. Cost of fuel energy is measured using Saudi gasoline prices data and is a direct indicator whether Saudi Arabia is reducing fuel subsidies and seriously pursuing the subsidy reform program to promote efficient fuel consumption and updated on a monthly basis. Total petroleum generation is measured by barrels per day and is provided on a quarterly basis. It is a direct indicator if Saudi Arabia is indeed moving away from fossil fuels or if it is going in the wrong direction. Total renewable energy generation is measured by billions of kilowatts per hour (billon/kWh). It is an important metric to keep track of whether Saudi Arabia is seriously committed to renewable energy.

The amount of CO2 emissions is reported by Our World in Data, which has been a reliable reporter of progress on climate efforts around the world. Total energy consumption, petroleum consumption, and renewable energy generation are all reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), whereas the cost of fuel energy is reported by Global Petrol Prices.

Below is a table of the baseline measurement of each of the factors mentioned:

Performance Indicator Baseline Value Date
Carbon dioxide emissions 625.51 million tons 2020
Total energy consumption 10.16 quad Btu 2019
Cost of fuel energy 2.351 USD/ gallon February 2022
Total petroleum generation 11,161 million barrels/ day 2021 Q3
Renewable energy generation 0.5 billion kilowatt-hours 2020

Source: Climate Action Tracker

This Post is submitted by Climate Scorecard Saudi Arabia Country Managers Abeer Abdulkareem and Amgad Ellaboudy


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