This Post was submitted by Climate Scorecard Mexico Country Manager Pablo David Necoechea Porras
Mexico Has Shown Little Interest in Reducing Emissions and Updating Its Paris Agreement Pledge
According to the International Energy Agency, in 2018, Mexico had 448.45 Mt. of CO2 emissions, representing +74.52% from 1990. However, on the Secretariat of Government, the Mexican Federal Government website, Mexico’s CO2 emissions data is not updated; the most recent data is from 2015.
In 2012, Mexico was the first developing country to have a General Law on Climate Change (GLCC), which recognizes the co-responsibility of the public sector and society to act against climate change. GLCC fostered the right to a Healthy Environment as a Human Right and included it in the Constitution.
In 2015, Mexico was the first developing country to include an Adaptation component in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) and proposed conditional and unconditional commitments for Mitigation and Adaptation under the Country Agreement. Mexico committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 22% in 2030 and 50% in 2050.
In 2019, Mexico published the preliminary basis for an Emissions Trading System Program as a level market instrument to reduce GHG. Based on the principle of cap and trade, the government imposed a maximum limit or cap on the total emissions of one or more sectors of the economy, causing some companies in these sectors to hold a permit for each ton of GHG emitted.
However, in 2020, Mexico ratified the Paris Agreement commitments and missed an opportunity to increase its climate ambition, as many countries expanded their targets. In addition, Mexico has failed to published progress reports, making it difficult to obtain data related to the commitments and targets assumed.
Additionally, industry regulation modification has occurred recently. The Mexican Congress passed a presidential bill on March 9, 2021, that reforms and adds specific provisions to the Electricity Industry Law intending to strengthen the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE), a state-owned company that had a monopoly on electric energy generation through conventional sources, for many years before Energy Reform’s 2013 reform opened the activity to the private sector.
This amendment establishes a new structure that would eliminate the preference for clean energy generation and other incentives granted to aid in the growth and development of the clean energy sector, posing a threat to Mexico’s goals to combat climate change.
In addition, in 2021, the Secretary of the Environment and Natural Resources had a budget reduction of 28.07% compared to 2018. It seems that Mexico has no interest in meeting the goals of the Paris agreement.
Due to Mexico’s geographic conditions, the country is vulnerable to climate risks. It should foster laws, guidelines, programs, and measures to decarbonize its energy matrix and strengthen compliance with the 2030 target and the Paris Agreement commitments.
Responsible for coordinating climate emissions policy in Mexico:
María Luisa Albores González, Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources, Federal Government of Mexico.