Submitted by Indonesia Country Manager Tristan Grupp
Indonesia: National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Reduction (RAN-GRK) and The National Action Plan on Climate Change (RAN-API)
Background on Indonesia’s National Climate Change Policy
In 2009 at the G20 summit, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, the previous president, called for the emissions target that become the basis for Indonesia’s INDC in 2015; a 26% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions below business-as-usual by 2020 and up to 41% reduction by 2020 with international assistance. The current INDC stands at 29% reduction by 2030 and the same 41% conditional target. In 2011, Yudhoyono declared Presidential Regulation no. 61 which included the National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Reduction (Rencana Nasional Penurnan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca, RAN-GRK). Presidential Regulation No. 61 was the outcome of the G20 summit and the COP meetings in Cancun and Copenhagen. The decree intended to use RAN-GRK as a reference document for GHG emissions in any government development planning. RAN-GRK has been expanded since the decree. It identifies the actions that Indonesia will take to reduce its GHG emissions. In 2012, Bappenas (National Development Planning Agency) established a secretariat for RAN-GRK. The executive branch has largely developed and implemented RAN-GRK.
RAN-GRK is the “plan of action” for Indonesia’s emissions reductions targets. RAN-GRK requires the participation of government ministries and institutions to reduce GHG emissions. RAN-GRK identifies five major sectors that will be essential to achieve RAD-GRK’s emission reduction target. These are: forestry and peatlands, agriculture, energy, industry, transportation, and waste. The responsible government ministries are BAPPENAS, the ministries of environment, forestry, agriculture, public works, industry, transportation, energy and finance. Although RAN-GRK is a national action plan, it also lays the foundation for the actions of provinces, localities, and private enterprises to implement GHG reductions. RAN-GRK mandates that Indonesia’s provinces develop and submit a Local Action Plan (RAD-GRK). RAN-GRK provides capacity building, budgets and potential participation in domestic and international markets to local governments to incentivize them to contribute to RAN-GRK’s goals. RAD-GRKs are tailored to the development plans of each of the provinces. The Ministry of Home Affairs with the support of Bappenas and the Ministry of the Environment oversees and coordinates the preparation of RAD-GRKs. Bappenas creates the guidelines for each of the local action plans. Local Actions Plans are planned with these expectations:
- Calculation of GHG inventory and of a provincial multi-sectoral BAU baseline.
- Identification and selection of mitigation actions.
- Development of mitigation scenarios according to selected and prioritized GHG mitigation actions in line with their local development priorities and plans.
- Identification the key stakeholders/institutions and financial resources.
- Local governments also can encourage the involvement of public and private companies by raising awareness of the climate change impacts and facilitating public private partnerships (among other options).
Taken from the RAN-GRK secretariat webpage. See “Learn More” below under RAN-GRK and RAD-GRK.
How RAN-GRK Functions, RAN-API
Indonesia’s unifying national policy framework is the National Action Plan on Climate Change (RAN-API). Established in 2007 by the Environment Ministry, RAN-API is coordinated by the National Council on Climate Change which is composed of 17 ministers and is chaired by the president. RAN-API brings together many different mitigation strategies. These include Indonesian Adaptation Strategy (Bappenas 2011), National Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change For Indonesia (DNPI, 2011), Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral Roadmap (Bappenas 2010), the National Action Plan for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (Ministry of the Environment, 2007), and the sectoral adaptation plans by line ministries/government agencies. RAN-API strengthens RAN-GRK’s seven mitigation actions through these ways and helps achieve the 2019 target of 26% GHG emissions reductions. These mitigation actions are:
1. Sustainable peatland management
2. Reduction in rate of deforestation and land degradation
3. Development of carbon sequestration projects in forestry and agriculture
4. Promotion of energy efficiency
5. Development of alternative and renewable energy sources
6. Reduction in solid and liquid waste
7. Shifting to low-emission transportation modes
Presidential Regulation no. 61/2011: http://theredddesk.org/countries/laws/presidential-regulation-no-612011-regarding-national-action-plan-ghg-emission
Summary of RAN-GRK: https://hub.globalccsinstitute.com/publications/development-indonesian-namas-framework/i4-ran-grk-national-action-plan the rest of the report, which includes this section on RAN-GRK, also discusses Indonesia’s NAMA and gives assessments of the different sectors that the NAMAs seek to influence.
RAN-API: https://gc21.giz.de/ibt/var/app/wp342deP/1443/wp-content/uploads/filebase/programme-info/RAN-API_Synthesis_Report_2013.pdf and http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/legislation/countries/indonesia/
RAN-GRK summary and comparison with other countries’ NAMAs: https://mitigationpartnership.net/sites/default/files/2011_wi_wanghelmreich_current_developments_in_pilot_namas_of_developing_countries.pdf
CAIT from WRI tracks and reports on each province’s adaptation plan in a very accessible way: http://cait.wri.org/indonesia
For more information about Bappenas’s MER system: Climate Change Policy in Indonesia edited by Shinji Kaneko and Masato Kawanishi, section 2.3.2
INCAS’s land use MRV across Indonesia, data from INCAS and the reported measurements: http://www.incas-indonesia.org/data/national-data/
Background on MRV and INCAS: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2015/10/07/indonesia-aims-unified-reliable-greenhouse-gas-data.html
Challenges facing INCAS in MRV measurements of land use: http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/articles/indonesia-aims-for-top-tier-carbon-accounting-across-all-land-types-by-2018-but-fragmented-land-management-leaves-peat-in-limbo/
MOEF’s report on INCAS from 2015: http://www.incas-indonesia.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/1.-INCAS-National-Inventory-of-Greenhouse-Gas-_web.pdf
OJK and finance, from the Jakarta Post: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/06/22/analysis-is-indonesia-ready-finance-change.htm
–Submitted by Climate Scorecard Country Manager Hriday Sarma