Brazil: Action Plan for Prevention and Control of the Legal Amazon Deforestation (PPCDAm)
Beginning in 2004, successful public policies at the federal level were aimed at reducing the deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon. This made possible the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the country since land use has been responsible for the majority of Brazil’s emissions (see Image 1 below). Still in 2014, most of Brazilian GHG emissions were related to deforestation, degradation or conversion of soil between rural activities and burning of forests residues—corresponding to 42% of total gross emissions (SEEG, 2016). Brazil is responsible for 10% of land use global emissions (it ranks in 2nd globally, behind Indonesia).
Given that most deforestation emissions have corresponded to the Brazilian Amazon (59% in 2014 – SEEG, 2016), in 2004 the government started implementing the Action Plan for Prevention and Control of the Legal Amazon Deforestation (PPCDAm). This was a governmental effort that significantly contributed to the decrease of deforestation. Under the umbrella of PPCDAm policies, Brazil has achieved impressive results in reducing emissions from deforestation, mainly by reducing the deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon by 82% between 2004 and 2014 (See Image 1 below).
Image 1 Brazil’s total emissions: 1990-2014 (SEEG, 2016)
The Action Plan is supported in part by international cooperation agencies from Germany, Norway and Japan. It is implemented with governments from the state and local levels and civil society actors. PPCDAm is organized in 3 axes:
- Agrarian and Land Management (e.g.: implementation of frameworks for management of public forests and the creation of conservation areas);
- Monitoring and Environmental Control (e.g.: Real Time System for Detection of Deforestation – DETER, a satellite-based system that enables frequent and quick identification of deforestation hot spots, that enhanced monitoring and targeting capacity, making it easier for law enforcers to act upon areas with illegal deforestation activity);
- Fostering Sustainable Production Activities (e.g.: guidelines for a new model of development).
Brazil’s intended Nationally Determined Contribution towards achieving the objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change says that related to land use change and forests, the country is committed to:
- strengthening and enforcing the implementation of the Forest Code, at federal, state and municipal levels;
- strengthening policies and measures with a view to achieve, in the Brazilian Amazon, zero illegal deforestation by 2030 and compensating for greenhouse gas emissions from legal suppression of vegetation by 2030;
- restoring and reforesting 12 million hectares of forests by 2030, for multiple purposes;
- enhancing sustainable native forest management systems, through georeferencing and tracking systems applicable to native forest management, with a view to curbing illegal and unsustainable practices.
In 2015, the 3rd phase (2012-2015) of PPCDAm was concluded and it is currently under evaluation. The recent political crisis in Brazil may have postponed actions on this area. In addition, in 2015, the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Program (PRODES), part of PPCDAm, showed that there was a deforestation rate of 5.831 km2 between August 2014 and July 2015—an increase of 16% in relation to 2014, but a reduction of 79% related to 2004. The next yearly rate will be released soon and it is almost certain that there is an increasing trend of deforestation rates for the period August 2015 and July 2016. Moreover, country’s agriculture and livestock, and energy emissions are increasing as well.
To see Brazilian emissions by sector, including land use: http://seeg.eco.br/en/setores/
For more information about PRODES: http://www.dpi.inpe.br/prodesdigital/prodes.php?LANGUAGE=EN&
Brazil’s iNDC is available at http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Brazil/1/BRAZIL%20iNDC%20english%20FINAL.pdf
Reuters on successful Brazilian efforts to reduce deforestation: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-climatechange-forests-environment-idUSKBN0TJ1M620151130
To know more about the Amazon Fund: http://www.amazonfund.gov.br/